Stellarator reactor

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Although the main effort of the fusion community for the development of a fusion reactor is focused on the tokamak design (ITER), design studies have been made for a fusion reactor based on the stellarator design. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

The main advantages of the stellarator concept over the tokamak concept are:

  • The density limit is 2 to 5 times higher
  • Performance (beta or β) is not limited by disruptions. β values of up to 5% have been achieved
  • Access to continuous operation due to the reduced amplitude or absence of net plasma current
  • ELMs occur but can be controlled by selecting the magnetic configuration (iota windows or magnetic field ergodicity)
  • The magnetic configuration can be specifically optimized to reduce transport
  • Nearly complete external control of the configuration increases operational robustness and lessens the need for control and feedback systems
  • Stellarator divertors, with long connection lengths and embedded magnetic islands, may mitigate heat loads on target plates by radiating some of the power


  1. H. Wobig, The theoretical basis of a drift-optimized stellarator reactor, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 35 (1993) 903-917
  2. J.F. Lyon and G.H. Neilson, Compact Stellarators, Journal of Fusion Energy 17, 3 (1998) 189-191
  3. G.H. Neilson et al, Physics issues in the design of high-beta, low-aspect-ratio stellarator experiments, Phys. Plasmas 7 (2000) 1911
  4. C.D. Beidler et al, Stellarator Fusion Reactors - an overview, J. Plasma Fusion Res. SERIES 5 (2002) 149-155
  5. H. Wobig and F. Wagner, Nuclear Energy. Chapter 7, Magnetic confinement fusion: stellarator (2005) ISBN 978-3-540-42891-6
  6. R.C. Wolf et al, A stellarator reactor based on the optimization criteria of Wendelstein 7-X, Fusion Engineering and Design 83, Issues 7-9 (2008) 990-996